Urban planning is often referred to as urban and regional planning, town planning, city planning, rural planning, urban development, physical planning, urban management, etc. Urban planning is a technical and political process that is focused on the development of institutions, infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. Traditionally, urban planning maintained a top-down approach – focusing on master planning the physical layout of cities. The primary concern was the public welfare, which included considerations of efficiency, sanitation, protection and use of the environment, as well as effects of the master plans on the social and economic activities. Overtime, urban planning has adopted more strategic long-term vision which identifies targets on a myriad of social, economic and urban indicators to enhance the quality of life of people by making cities smart, resilient and safe.